FROM THE MATERNAL WARD TO THE PSYCHE WARD: A LOOK AT PARTUM DEPRESSION 

I had a vague idea that women who suffer puerpural psychosis (serious mental illness following childbirth) are more a danger to themselves and their babies than to their spouses. 

Can infidelity and domestic violence contribute to the development of postpartum depression and puerperal psychosis in a mother? Absolutely! The fact however is that it is well documented that neonates and children are infinitely more at risk of being killed by their psychotic mother.

“There is a reason it is called Post Partum Depression.

The CAUSE of the depression……..IS THE BABY.” 

In dispelling the myth of the above statement, let us look at the evidence:

“Although it has been suggested that postnatal depression is caused by low levels of progesterone or estrogen or high levels of prolactin, no consistent relationships have been found  ( Harris, 1994;  Hendrick, Altshuler, &  Suri, 1998).” Hence we can say with some measure of confidence that postpartum depression has no KNOWN CAUSE. That leaves us with contributory or so – called risk factors. 
“In their meta-analysis, O’Hara and  Swain (1996) included 13 studies comprising over 1350 subjects that examined the effects of obstetric factors. They concluded that obstetric factors had a small effect (0.26) on the development of postpartum depression.” 
“The evidence relating to Caesarean section and postpartum depression suggests that there is no association between the two variables. Warner et  al. (1996) and Forman et al. (2000) found no  significant association between elective or emergency caesarean section and subsequent postpartum  depression. Johnstone et  al. (2001) reported a nonsignificant trend between postpartum depression and caesarean section.” 
“Unplanned or  unwanted pregnancy as a risk factor for postpartum depression  should be interpreted very cautiously.”
“There’s little question that past history of psychopathology puts women at  risk for depression in the postpartum period. The average effect size is one of the largest for the risk factors of postpartum  depression.”
Strong to moderate risk factors for the development of postpartum depression are depression during pregnancy, anxiety during pregnancy, stressful recent life events (e.g death of a loved one, divorce). Additional potent risk factors include lack of social support (either perceived or received) from spouse, friends and relatives, and a previous history of depression.
So to be clear, the lack of support from a husband could be one important factor in the development of a frank psychosis in a nursing mother. However, saying the man deserves his fate is rather a long stretch. Of course the woman could plead the insanity defence and ultimately be absolved of murder, but the victim is no less a victim, and the woman might spend the rest of her life in the psyche ward, unable to care for her child. Our focus should be educating people on how to prevent ugly incidents such as a woman stabbing her husband after childbirth.
Author: Dr. Charles Uzor (Medical Practitioner).

WHY AFRICANS HATE THEMSELVES

When I tell them to submit a content analysis of a poem or a literature in their language, they’d thunder, “No Sir!” When I ask them if they know at least 20 African writers, they’d look at themselves and nod in ignorance.
Oh, our history is still written by the Whites – they’d say Mary Slessor  stopped the killing of twins; that Mungo Park discovered the Niger River, etc – and we bask in this empty euphoria. 
Nigeria for instance, wasn’t even named by an African. She wasn’t even divided into zones by an African. The history of the South African apartheid wasn’t even written by the blacks. The toxic emotions that led to the Rwandan genocide and the divisions of a people was a product of the influence of the Whites. The “Bantu Philosophy,” wasn’t written by a Bantu person. 
Put in different countries on earth, our problems (as Africans) are very much the same because “the white man, whether in the majority or minority is always on top.” On our own lands, when the white man came for a visit, we gave them a seat. They sat. But afterwards, they said, “get out!” Archbishop Desmond Tutu, a Nobel peace prize winner had since written this in his “No Future Without Forgiveness”

This is one truth I had learnt from studies in the Philosophy of History namely: that the victors, the conquerors always write history. It  speaks of a rare truth that the majority of us have drunk for centuries – that until the white man comes and write your history, you have no history!
In (their) main stream media, they preach about the “poornography” of Africans. They tell us, “look niggas, it’s your poverty that has kept you where you are, not us!” Now we blame poverty for everything; beginning from families to worship centers and to political offices, the prayer against poverty is the most understood and the most uniting. 
In a bid to showcase how we’ve been favoured than our kinsmen, and our desire to sit with the whites on the table of neo-colonialism, we gamble and steal our resources as well as share same, selfie-in-mind, with the white man. 
Miriam Makeba had known, and revealed these margins in her 1969 interview; and like her I don’t speak now of an organic hatred for the Whites. I speak/write of an acknowledgement of the hatred sold to us – the one we are yet to see; the hatred for our own stories and our own histories as well as the hatred that’ll make anyone of us thunder ignorantly, “No, sir!” 
Author: David Francis E. 

SEX AND POPES

In the sexual department of John XII (955 – 64) was not a lot better than his grandmother Marozia. He was sixteen when he took holy orders and his heart was just not in it. It was said that he invented sins that had not been known since the beginning of the world and whole monasteries spent days and nights praying for his death. 

John was an insatiable bisexual and gathered about him the loosest young nobles of either sex. He was accused of running a brothel out of St. Peter’s. He used papal treasury to pay off his gambling debts, and enjoyed pranks such as ordaining a ten-year old boy as bishop. He gambled with pilgrim’s offerings. His lovers were given gold chalices from St. Peter’s (Nigel, 72).
The defrocked Bishop of Liège was eventually murdered by a Flemish knight who was outraged at what the former bishop had done to his daughter. It was St. Bonaventure, a close friend of Innocent V (1276) who compared Rome to the harlot of the Apocalypse, drunk with wine of her whoredom. 
In Rome, Bonaventure said, there was nothing but lust and simony, even in the highest ranks of the church. It was quite simple, he explained, Rome corrupts the prelates. The prelates corrupt the clergy. And the clergy corrupts the people (110). Responding to the temple prostitution which was introduced to Rome in the thirteen century, Urban II (1261 – 64) wrote a letter condemning this sacrilegious debauchery, to little effect. The pope’s secretary, Bishop Dietrich of Niema had this to say about the goings-on in Norway and Iceland:

“When the bishops go twice a year to pay visits to the curates, they have to take their mistresses with them. The women will not let them make the trip without them, because the bishops are magnificently received by the curates and their own concubines and the bishop’s mistresses fear that they will find the concubines of the priests more powerful than they are and become amorous of them.

As the Catholic Church grew more powerful, some priests even assumed the lord of the manor’s feudal ‘jus primae noctis.’ They insist in sleeping with the bride on her wedding night before the husband enjoyed his conjugal rights. In his letters to the Pope, Bishop Dietrich of Niema, goes into great detail when describing the debauchery of his nuns. According to him, they were prey to the lust of bishops, monks and lay brothers (108). He also wrote of convents being ‘assemblages of prostitutes.’ Shocking as these things are to your ears now in this present century, it was no surprise to Urban IV. He had been familiar with a woman named Eva before he became Pope. His successor Clement IV (1265 – 68) had been married and had two daughters – some say three – before he took holy orders. 
There were more problems in France too. Around that time, Robert Arbissel, who ran a convent of 4000 nuns, was roundly criticized. He declared himself to be a sinner and one of his penances was ‘frequently to sleep amongst and with the women’ to mortify his flesh. And the punishments he imposed on the nuns usually involved them stripping naked (196).
It was at the Council of Piacenza (1095) under Pope Callistus who decreed that clerical marriages were invalid. And to show that they meant business, they sold the priests’ wives into slavery. Soon the Pope introduced the infamous ‘exillagium.’ This was a sex tax. It allowed a clergyman to keep a concubine as long as he paid a regular annual fee. A little poem was written to this effect:


The clergy now thee, good Callistus hate;

For heretofore each one might have his mate,

But since thou mounted hast the papal throne

       They must keep punks or learn to lie alone.

Many indeed kept ‘punks’ – catamites- rather than learn to lie alone. Callistus’s successor, Honourius II (1124 – 30), was equally tough on sex and the clergy. In September 1126, the Pope instructed Cardinal John of Crema to declare (as papal legate to England) that it was a humble sacrilege on the body of Christ that the mass should be performed by a man who had just left the bed of a harlot. 

However, the Council of Brixon in 1080 condemned Pope Gregory VI (1075 – 85) for ‘sowing divorce among legitimate spouses.’ Eventually, Gregory, relented in his campaign against ‘fornication.’ Had he carried out his threat of sacking all sexually incontinent priests, he would have wiped out the Catholic Church. His reasoning was simple: “the Church cannot escape from the clutches of the laity unless priests first escape from the clutches of their wives.”
Gregory’s attempt to impose clerical celibacy met with fierce resistance  especially in Germany and France. One critic’s exasperation at Gregory’s edict was summed in the words: “This Pope, as filthy and adulterer and fornicator as he was, forbade chaste matrimony to the priests’ (97).
Alexander II (1661 – 73) took a more practical approach. He gave up the struggle against sexual sin almost completely. In 1064, he never sacked a priest who had sex with his father nor did he, in 1066, when a priest from Padua had comitted incest with his mother.

According to the reports of Byzantine ambassadors, every priest about to be consecrated a bishop in the Catholic Church was asked four questions;


**Have you sodomized a boy?

**Have you fornicated with a nun?

**Have you sodomized a four-legged animal?

**Have you committed adultery?
It is not clear which question you were supposed to answer yes to and which no. After all, according to the “The Book of Gomorrah,” venality, lechery, bestiality and murder were common among prelates. Leo IX (1949 – 54) on the other hand just couldn’t expel sodomites from the clergy; if he got rid of the gays, perhaps he feared he would have no one left. 

In the eleventh century, there was a new attempt to clamp down on immorality. Distinguished theologians began discussing once more, in all solemnity, the appropriate penances for masturbation, impure thoughts, swallowing semen, drinking menstrual blood and kneading bread on a woman’s naked buttocks. Sodomy was particularly frowned on at this time. St. Peter Damian’s long treatise called, “The Book of Gomorrah” was written about homosexuality and the priesthood. He also came up with his own list of punishment. These naturally included a good deal of flogging (84).

Paul VI on the 24th June, 1967 wrote an encyclical (sacerdotalis caelibatus) letter on priestly celibacy. One cannot but marvel at the euphemism used almost throughout the encyclical. There is an outright denial of the crooked ways of the past ‘sexual sins’ as narrated above when it stated: “Priestly celibacy has been guarded by the Church for centuries as a brilliant jewel and retains its value…”
The encyclical refreshingly acknowledges the troubling yet reasonable questions thrown to the Church concerning her unabashed stand on celibacy. She discusses this in her “Objections Raised Against Celibacy” ( Austin F., page 287) even as she confirmed this law of celibacy to be divinely ordained. Hence, there’ll be never ending series of difficulties to those who ‘cannot receive this precepts,’ and who do not know or who forget the ‘gift of God’ and who are unaware of the higher logic of that new concept of life, its wonderful efficacy and abundant riches (288).

To further galvanize this new found mystery and to register celibacy among the logical, the Church had in the same encyclical stated the reasons for celibacy as well as its salvific significance. Further comforting reasons for the continuing of the discipline of clerical celibacy was seen in the exaltation of virginity by the Eastern Fathers. St. John Chrysostom, intent in throwing light on the harmony which must exist between private life of him who ministers at the alter and the dignity of the order of which his sacred duties belong, he affirmed: “…it is becoming that he who accepts the priesthood be as pure as if he were in heaven.”

In the final analysis therefore, one can, like many reasonable people, hope that the majority of the human race, understand at least the processes that led to today’s Catholic clerical celibacy. It has been a long journey, from the mouth of the prophets, of Jesus the Christ, to the early apostles, to strangers who turned Christians, to the States and empires, to temple prostitutes and lustful Popes and bishops, to an imposition of celibacy and the reactions that follow, to the rejection by a Council and an affirmation by another and then to a re-interpretation of the concept of celibacy, to the explanations of the ‘mystery’ behind it and to the unquestioned dogma of priestly celibacy. 

We can now just wait for the tidings of the next century or millennia!
Image credits:

https://leadersthatfollow.com/a-popes-guide-to-good-sex-catholic-teaching-on-sex/

canterburyatheists.blogspot.co.ke/2010/04/theres-long-rich-history-of-sexual.html?m=1

www.theblaze.com/news/2011/11/16/italian-retail-co-runs-ads-featuring-obama-engaged-in-same-sex-kisses

References:



Austin Flannery, “Vatican Council II,” Vol. II,  NY: Costello Publishing Company 1982.

Nigel Cawthorne, “Sexual Lives of the Popes,” Great Britain, London, 1996.

Author: David Francis E. 

NIGERIAN YOUTH IN POLITICAL ARENA: A PANACEA OR BANE IN NIGERIAN DEVELOPMENT

Lecture delivered by Hon Abiola Makinde, on the Occasion of the 2nd Southwest legislative summit of the Students Representative Council (SRC) of Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba Akoko, (AAUA) on Thursday 23rd November, 2017, at the Olusegun Obasanjo Multipurpose Hall.



Protocols 
I must first appreciate your gesture as Nigerian University students asking questions concerning the reality of our contemporary society, inviting me; a youth just as yourself whom the weight of the society falls upon, who also bear the responsibility of restoring the glory and genuinety of this country. I sincerely appreciate your thoughtfulness, having created an opportunity to kick-start discussions on how WE the youth could live out this our God given responsibility. 
In the famous word of Frantz Fanon which many of us must have heard before, but we have not contemplated enough upon, “every generation, out of relative obscurity, discovers its mission, either to fulfil it, or betray it.” It is my personal prayer, not just today but always that we do not betray it.
The first challenge you see all around Nigeria today is poverty, and the poverty is still on the increase, (Evelyn Nwamaka and David Onyinyechi, 2015). Poverty is fuelled by politics (M.J Bane, 2009) but only with politics can we reverse the problem of poverty, (Green, Duncan 2012) which calls for our mission. It is unfortunate that Politics in itself cannot solve any problem but compound it, except it is given a purpose, which is a dexterous management of, and systematic improvement on the skills and intellectual character of the working people, especially the youth.

Till date in Nigeria and many other countries of Africa, we still see political involvements only from the standpoint of the “build up to election”, occupying political offices, the politicking of distribution of allocations, and making personal gains from opportunities around government. All these even to the exclusion of the majority of the people who trust us with the responsibility of service. A new trend is also being formalized in Nigerian Politics today, which is the practical PURCHASE of votes, where billions of naira is shipped to election areas few days to the election to induce poor citizens to vote for the highest bidder. Even if we have not yet designed an effective mechanism to arrest this situation, we must bear in our mind, as the future of this society that this is wrong and barbaric.

(Google image of the University).

Our involvement in political arena cannot be a bane, as the question is posed in the topic, except we refuse to put the knowledge we acquire from school to use in our daily lives, and our analysis of the political developments. For those who because of Unemployment and Underemployment in Nigeria resort to politics, I beg you in the name of God and your Human destiny to get back to God and retrace your LIFE-PURPOSE, Eph 2:10 “For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should work in them” KJV. Society should not determine you; you have the spirit of God in you to make changes, but only those who live in that consciousness, Rom 8:14 “For as many as are led by the spirit of God, they are the sons of God.”KJV. 
Many entrepreneurs in the world today, not only in the U.S.A are richer than many countries as a whole, so why should you limit God in your life? Entrepreneurs and Industrialists also have their own place in the aggregate development of a society, beyond contesting for elective positions. 
Foray into politics should be a “calling”, it is a responsibility to solve problems. Taking your people out of poverty is not a hope of happenstance but a Plan, Dedication and continuous Contemplations. Obafemi Awolowo will remain an eternally bright reference for us. He didn’t do any magic, but used knowledge to give a direction to  the productive and socio-economic activities of our grandfathers at that time, and we are better for it today. 
We have only not continued in the “Awolowo spirit” but our generational mission, according to Fanon, compels us to return to it, even in a more advanced way, else we will all have to run into exile, God forbid! Nigeria needs visionary leadership, and having discovered this gap, the young must position themselves strategically to lead the nation, even  the Bible supports it.  Acts 2:17.  “And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out my Spirit in all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your young men will see visions, your old men will dream dreams”. The young are to see visions. Joseph in his youthful days saved Egypt from famine, and rescued his own family from hunger, bringing them with him to Egypt where he managed food productivity in excess, while other nations starved. That’s the enormous potentials it pleases God to put in the youth, it is for us to put these potentials to use for the overall benefit of our people. 
The prosperity of any economy does not rest on politicians, but on Industrialists and Intellectuals (especially the Academic). It is the Industrialists who produce goods and services, employ people in the society, pay taxes that government use for social services. The intellectuals think, forecast, and create new solutions for the industries. The politicians give direction to both Industrial and Intellectual productivity as demanded by the immediate and long term requirements of the society, factoring their cultural peculiarities and identity.

 We need youths who will “re-cultivate” faith in the knowledge acquired in our Nigerian Universities and Polytechnics, make up for the inadequacies by our general access to Internet materials today viz-a-viz Google, Wikipedia, Google Scholar, Journals etc. it is the quantum of Knowledge we imbibe and use upon nature around us, locally, to produce useful materials for local and international consumptions, that will improve the Nigerian economy, not our reliance on any Aid from foreign donors (World bank, USAID etc), or on crude oil proceeds. The earlier we decide to think and walk in the reality of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, (Klaus Schwab, 2017) the better for our Foray into Politics, the alternative will only land us all into what I call “Politics of Cannibalism” where we will have to be killing ourselves because the political offices to aspire for are too few to go round.
In conclusion, As a substance of faith and my mission into politics, I want to congratulate us ahead, as a day will come very soon, by our genuine commitment, when our youths will stop being desperate for permanent residency abroad, we shall travel to get exposed, enjoy ourselves and return, as home will actually be home. Economic development will be real and not just a nominal value as we read about the growth of Nigeria’s GDP only in the pages of Newspapers.
Once again, thank you so much for hearing my view, we only need more of us to think alike, and soon we shall arrive at that great National Destination.
Hon. Abiola Makinde, Former Chairman Ondo West Local Government.
REFERENCES:



Evelyn N. O. O. and David O. A, 2015.  Poverty and Income Inequality in Nigeria: Any Casualty? Asian Economic and Financial Review, 2015,5(3):439-452


Green Duncan, 2012. From poverty to power: How active citizens and effective state can change the world, 2nd ed. Rugby, UK: Practical Action Publishing and Oxford: Oxfam International


Holy Bible KJV


Klaus Schwab, 2017. The Fouth Industrial Revolution.


Mary Jo Bane 2009. Poverty politics and Policy

VAGINAL BLISS MADE EASY

It is a major rule that water is the best cleaning agent for our vaginas. No scented soaps, creams, powders, etc,  should go on or into the ‘honey pot’ in the name of cleaning.  This is because the vagina has an innate ability to sanitize itself, so water does suffice.
That said, today, I will be letting you in on 3 other Vagina Secrets that the majority of sexually conscious and fulfilling partners have tried, tested and found to be absolutely TRUE.
Very quickly, shall we? 👇
1) Pineapples are a girl’s bestfriend.

Sweetheart, if you want to enhance the fragrance of your honey pot, and you want your man guzzling your juices non stop and begging for more and more cunnilingus time with you, you want to consume more and more pineapples.
2) Your Vagina Loves Yoghurts e.g Greek Yoghurt.
Please do not deep yoghurt in your vagina, but make it a regular in your diet as much as you can. It’s referred to as a Probiotic meal. It helps prevent yeast infections by ensuring the presence of good bacteria and balancing the PH of the vagina. You can have it with fruit salads, vegetable salads, nuts and even raisins. It’s absolutely delicious.

Sadly, it is believed, and rightly so, that women who possess a healthy measure of hips and a backside are prone to yeast and other vaginal infections. 
Why is this so? It occurs due to the heat between your thighs which brings about a moist environment which in turn enhances the growth of the kind of bacteria that leads to these infections. Refreshingly, an increase in the intake of yoghurt will most certainly make such women experience less and less drama with their vagina. Quite the relief.  It’s always best to take the preventive route, rather than suffering the effects of infections and popping pills all the time.

3. Coconut Oil is indispensable



Babes, you shouldn’t  do without possessing a bottle of natural coconut oil. First and foremost it is so amazing for your skin, but best believe it’s twice as amazing for your vagina.

For those of you who are obsessed with washing the vagina, you can wash with coconut oil. Add a few tea spoons into a bowl of warm water, deep a towel into it and wash your vagina.

For those of you who react to lubricants, whether or not it’s water based. Coconut Oil is your bail out. 
To further solidify this point above, Dr. Chibuike Joseph, a medical practitioner had this to say:

  •  “Probiotics are non disease-causing  microbes that are beneficial to man when ingested. They help replenish the body’s normal flora, and by so doing, they keep harmful organisms at bay.
  • Yogurt is a probiotic food substance in the sense that it contains a large quantity of beneficial microbes. Incidentally, most of those organisms found in Yogurt, Lactobacillus species, are the ones naturally found in the vagina, and constitute nature’s ingenious strategy for preventing vaginal opportunistic vaginal infections like Candidiasis. 
  • So, Yoghurts help prevent, and even serve as adjunct for the treatment of, Candidiasis.
  • Coconut oil also seems to have promising antibiotic, and antifungal, therapeutic potentials. But this has not been proven beyond all doubts by large scale studies.”

For those of you who have yeast infections and are suffering the symptoms. Coconut oil can serve as a natural treatment for yeast infections. 

Take a tampon, pull it apart and bring out the white cotton-like bit you insert into the vagina. Hold it by the string, deep it into a bottle of coconut oil. Let it soak up the oil. Now, fit your tampon back together and insert that cotton bit into your vagina as you would do when you are on your period. You can do this morning and night. You should observe a relief within two days if not one. 
If symptoms persist, please see your doctor.

I know it’s tough to get natural coconut oil when there are so many adulterated brands in the market. I use a brand called TOR but to be extra sure you can make yours yourself. 
Get some coconut, take out the back and cut the coconut into bits. Put it in a blender and blend with water. Pour the blended coconut in a pot and let it boil till the water dries up, reduce the heat and leave it to steam as the oil rises to the top. Then scoop that oil and put it in a bottle. That’s your pure, organic, natural coconut oil.

It was a pleasure sharing this with you dear friends. No day as perfect as this to talk about the part of the body that played a major role in bringing about our existence. Either through sex or birth.

Author: Esiri Ukueku-Uduaghan